Early Modern



The battle of Stoke Field, in support of the pretender Lambert Simnel, is now generally considered to be the last battle of the Wars of the Roses. It did not, however, end the rebellions against Henry VII. Another pretender, Perkin Warbeck, was supported for a time by the Scottish king James IV, and the taxation demanded to counter the Warbeck threat also caused a serious rebellion in 1497, which originated in Cornwall and only ended with defeat in the capital before Warbeck’s invasion, also in the West Country, failed.

The marriage of Henry VII’s daughter Margaret Tudor as part of the Treaty of Perpetual Peace eased tensions between England and Scotland for a time, but European alliances caused hostilities to break out again during the reign of Henry VIII, initially with James IV and then James V. The death of the latter resulted in the ‘Rough Wooing’ of the baby Scottish queen Mary Stuart, before she was sent to France and Tudor matchmaking was thwarted. Intermittent border warfare also continued until Mary’s son united the Scottish and English crowns as James VI and I.

The English Reformation, which included the dissolution of the monasteries, ushered in outbreaks of  religious, political and social unrest for Henry VIII and his three children, with rebellions caused by religious upheavals, competing monarchical candidates, taxation, and the practice of enclosure of common land.

Tensions between Catholics and Protestants remained unresolved as Stuarts succeeded Tudors in 1603.

Battle locations for Early Modern

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