Further Reading

  • Hall, The Penguin Atlas of British and Irish history, London, Penguin, 2001, 74-5.

This provides a very brief summary and simplified plan of the political and military context of the 12th century civil war and its wider context of the Norman transformation of England.


  • Bradbury, Stephen and Matilda: The Civil War of 1139-53, Stroud, Sutton Publishing, 1998

This gives an excellent broad overview of the years of conflict between Stephen and Matilda, of which the Northallerton campaign and the wider troubles on the Scottish border were an integral part.


  • Strickland, Securing the North: Invasion and the Strategy of Defence in Twelfth-Century Anglo-Scottish Warfare, Bury St Edmunds, Boydell, 2000

A short paper which provides an excellent context for the Northallerton campaign.


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