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  Further reading on the battle

Fulford is a very poorly documented action. The most detailed account is from a Scandinavian saga which was not written down until the early 13th century, and so much of the information is open to question.

SECONDARY WORKS

  • DeVries. The Norwegian invasion of England in 1066, Warfare in history, Woodbridge, Boydell Press, 1999. The most detailed modern study of the northern campaign of 1066 that provides an excellent context for the battle and, although neccessarily brief, gives the most useful discussion of the sources for the battle itself. The battle plan is simplistic in the extreme, but understandable given the uncertainties about the location of hte action.
  • McLynn. 1066 : The year of the three battles, London, Pimlico, 1999, 197-200. One of the more detailed and readable of modern accounts. However this, like some other accounts, suffers from an uncritical acceptance not only of the primary sources such as the Scandinavian sagas, but also of the various 19th and 20th century embellishment of what is a very sparsely documented action.
  • Mulhearn. Fulford, the first battle of 1066, Roam'in Tours, 2002

Brief discussions are also to be found in several battlefield studies, but they are typically little more than a footnote to the events of Stamford Bridge. None is particularly satisfactory as none has adequately understood the battlefield.

  • Barrett. Battles and Battlefields in England, London, Innes & Co., 1896, 2-4
  • Burne. The battlefields of England, London, Greenhill Books, 1996, 84-5
  • Seymour. Battles in Britain 1066-1746, 1979, 14-15 

CONTEMPORARY ACCOUNTS

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
The only significant contemporary account of the battle is the brief mention in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.

  • Douglas, David Charles, and George William Greenaway. English historical documents, 1042-1189, Oxford University Press, 1981.

Snorri Snorluson
The saga recorded by Snorri Snorluson in the early 13th century gives the greatest detail but the accuracy of much of the detail is questioned by many.

  • Magnusson, et al. King Harald's saga. Harald Hardradi of Norway, Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1966

Marianus Scotus
The chronicle of Marianus Scotus states that more than 1000 were killed in the battle as well as 100 priests.

  • Houts Elisabeth Maria Cornelia van. 'The Norman Conquest through European eyes', English Historical Review, 1995, 832-53.

Symeon of Durham
Symeon of Durham in the 12th century is the first author to describe the battle as having been fought at Fulford.

  • Arnold. Symeonis monachi opera omnia, The chronicles and memorials of Great Britain and Ireland during the Middle Ages, 1882, ii, 180.

 

   
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